Mon, 21 Jul 2014 17:11:33 -0400

CDC Director Frieden testifies before a hearing on Capitol Hill in WashingtonBy Julie Steenhuysen CHICAGO (Reuters) - The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention "may never know" how a fairly harmless form of bird flu was cross-contaminated with a dangerous bird flu strain before it was sent to a laboratory outside of the CDC, an agency spokesman said on Monday. The CDC disclosed the bird flu incident as part of an internal investigation into the agency's mishandling of live anthrax in June, potentially exposing dozens of its own lab workers to the pathogen. While no humans fell ill as a result of the bird flu breach, CDC Director Dr Thomas Frieden has called it “the most distressing" in a series of safety breaches at the agency because of the public risk posed by the virus.


Mon, 21 Jul 2014 19:22:03 -0400
A group of seven leading drugmakers has agreed to share an array of neglected experimental medicines with British academic researchers in the latest example of the deepening ties between industry and external scientists. British business minister Vince Cable announced the new partnership on Tuesday between the Medical Research Council (MRC) and the companies, under which the researchers will gain access to "deprioritized" pharmaceutical compounds. AstraZeneca, GlaxoSmithKline, Johnson & Johnson, Eli Lilly, Pfizer, Takeda and UCB have all signed up to the scheme, which builds on the success of an earlier two-way program between AstraZeneca and the MRC.
Sun, 20 Jul 2014 13:06:30 -0400

NASA file image shows Neil Armstrong on the moon next to the Lunar Module EagleBy Irene Klotz CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. (Reuters) - Forty-five years after the first Apollo lunar landing, the United States remains divided about the moon's role in future human space exploration. Ten more U.S. astronauts followed Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin's July 20, 1969, visit to the moon before the Apollo program was canceled in 1972. Instead, NASA was directed to begin planning for a human expedition to an asteroid. This path, however, is fraught with technological cul-de-sacs that do not directly contribute to radiation protection, landing systems, habitats and other projects needed to build the road to Mars, a National Research Council panel concluded in June.


Fri, 18 Jul 2014 16:55:16 -0400
By Victoria Cavaliere SEATTLE (Reuters) - Experts have mapped a huge magma reservoir below Mount Rainier in Washington state that begins melting deep in the Earth's mantle before pushing upwards to where it will eventually be tapped for eruption. Their findings, published this week in the journal Nature, are aimed at helping experts understand the volcano's inner workings, and eventually determine when it might again erupt. A state landmark, Mount Rainier last erupted in the 19th century. The tallest volcano and fifth-highest peak in the contiguous United States, it towers some 14,410-feet (4,392 meters) about 58 miles (93 km) southeast of Seattle, from most of which it is visible.
Tue, 22 Jul 2014 02:37:50 -0400
A new genetic analysis of people with schizophrenia — and the largest study investigating the genetic basis of any psychiatric disorder to date — provides hints that the disease may sometimes be connected with infections as some researchers have long suggested. There have been few innovative drug treatments for schizophrenia over the last 60 years. "In the past, people thought schizophrenia must happen because of some really bad mutations in a person not seen in people around them," said study co-author Steve McCarroll, director of genetics at the Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard in Cambridge, Massachusetts. "This study shows a substantial part of the risk of schizophrenia comes from many tiny nudges to the genome that all humans share."
Mon, 21 Jul 2014 17:00:55 -0400

Deadly Coral Diseases Surge Near Dredging SitesIn a first study of its kind, researchers have linked dredging to increased sickness in nearby coral reefs. Researchers studied the effects of such digging operations on the health of corals around Barrow Island, which is located off the west coast of Australia. "At dredging sites, we found more than twice as much coral disease than at our control sites," study lead author Joe Pollock, a postdoctoral candidate from the ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies at James Cook University and the Australian Institute of Marine Science, said in a statement. About 40 percent of the world's coral reefs are near large urban areas and coastlines undergoing rapid development, highlighting the importance of understanding how sediment and murky water can affect the health of coral reefs.


Mon, 21 Jul 2014 16:57:35 -0400
Child sex trafficking crimes occur every day in the United States, and doctors can play a role in identifying victims, getting them care and ultimately preventing such crimes, researchers say. Any sexual activity with a minor in exchange for money or something of value is considered child sex trafficking. Although the scope of child sex trafficking in the United States is unclear, such crimes "may be overlooked and under-reported because they frequently occur at the margins of society," said three experts, writing in an editorial published today (July 21) in the journal JAMA Pediatrics, Doctors may encounter child sex-trafficking victims who are seeking medical attention for illness or injury, but medical professionals may lack the tools to identify this type of abuse, according to the editorial by Dr. Angela Diaz, of the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York;
Tue, 22 Jul 2014 07:23:53 -0400

Apollo 11's Scariest Moments: Perils of the 1st Manned Moon LandingApollo 11 was four minutes into its landing sequence when the terse words of its commander, Neil Armstrong, came from the speaker in Mission Control: Buzz Aldrin, sitting next to Armstrong in the descending Lunar Module, stared at the frozen display on the computer, which read "1202." It was an error code, but for what? Controllers in Houston scanned their notes trying to figure out what the heck the problem was.


Tue, 22 Jul 2014 07:23:49 -0400

Actor Morgan Freeman Talks Mars Trips & More with NASA AstronautsActor Morgan Freeman grilled NASA astronauts on the International Space Station about how their work can get humans to Mars someday. "So you guys are out there, floating around, tossing that microphone back and forth there cleverly," Freeman said during a webcast Friday (July 18) featuring the station's Expedition 41 NASA astronauts Reid Wiseman and Steve Swanson. "Showoff," Freeman retorted as the audience at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California laughed. Swanson thinks that the International Space Station is a good place to practice for an eventual trip to Mars.


Fri, 18 Jul 2014 13:02:55 -0400
Some folk stories and superstitions hold that a full moon affects people's sleep, and new research lends support to this idea. In the study, researchers found that people slept for 20 to 25 minutes less on average on nights with a full moon, compared with how long they slept on nights with a quarter moon. The people in the study also said they had more trouble falling asleep during the full moon than the quarter moon, according to the results, published July 8 in the journal Current Biology. The researchers stressed that further studies are needed to confirm whether there is a relationship between moon phases and sleep duration.
Thu, 17 Jul 2014 17:52:32 -0400

Wheat pours into a truck as a French farmer harvests his crop in Aigrefeuille-sur-Maine near NantesBy Will Dunham WASHINGTON (Reuters) - As far as agricultural genome research goes, this may be the best thing since sliced bread - wheat bread, that is. An international team of scientists on Thursday unveiled a genetic blueprint of wheat in an accomplishment that may help guide the breeding of varieties of the vitally important food crop that are more productive and more hardy. Researchers who are part of the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium, formed in 2005 by a group of wheat growers, plant scientists and breeders, unveiled what they called a chromosome-based draft genome sequence of bread wheat, also known as common wheat. The work makes it easier to identify genes controlling agriculturally important traits like yield, disease and pest resistance and drought tolerance, according to Frédéric Choulet, a plant genomicist at the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA), one of the lead researchers.


Wed, 16 Jul 2014 03:28:42 -0400
Darkness is important for optimum reproductive health in women, and for protecting the developing fetus, said study researcher Russel J. Reiter, a professor of cellular biology at the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio. In a review of studies published online July 1 in the journal Fertility and Sterility, Reiter and his colleagues evaluated previously published research, and summarized the role of melatonin levels and circadian rhythms on successful reproduction in females.
Mon, 14 Jul 2014 11:27:43 -0400
So it's no surprise that probiotics, and foods or supplements containing live organisms that can help maintain a normal balance of good and bad bacteria in the gut, have also gained more attention. "There's been a tremendous increase in interest in probiotics among practicing physicians and the general public," said Dr. Allan Walker, a professor of pediatrics at Harvard Medical School and an investigator at the Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center at MassGeneral Hospital for Children in Boston. "Over the last 10 to 15 years, research into probiotics and intestinal microbes has taken off, and many talented researchers have entered the field," Walker said. In his own research, Walker studies the use of probiotics in infants, and has also co-chaired the Yale Workshop, a group of experts who analyzed the scientific data and published recommendations for physicians on probiotic use in 2011.
Mon, 14 Jul 2014 11:27:43 -0400
So it's no surprise that probiotics, and foods or supplements containing live organisms that can help maintain a normal balance of good and bad bacteria in the gut, have also gained more attention. "There's been a tremendous increase in interest in probiotics among practicing physicians and the general public," said Dr. Allan Walker, a professor of pediatrics at Harvard Medical School and an investigator at the Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center at MassGeneral Hospital for Children in Boston. "Over the last 10 to 15 years, research into probiotics and intestinal microbes has taken off, and many talented researchers have entered the field," Walker said. In his own research, Walker studies the use of probiotics in infants, and has also co-chaired the Yale Workshop, a group of experts who analyzed the scientific data and published recommendations for physicians on probiotic use in 2011.
Sun, 13 Jul 2014 06:49:28 -0400

Secrets of Sun's 'Coronal Rain' Revealed (Video)Earth's nearest star has bad weather, too. The mechanisms driving coronal rain are similar to the way rain forms on Earth, according to a statement released by the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS) in the United Kingdom. Scientists found that clouds of plasma in the corona cool, condense and fall back to the sun's surface in a waterfall-like arch if solar conditions are just right. "Showers of 'rain' and waterfalls on the sun are quite something, though I wouldn't recommend taking a stroll there anytime soon," Eamon Scullion of Trinity College Dublin in Ireland, who led the solar physics research, said in a statement.


Sat, 12 Jul 2014 11:58:47 -0400
A group of "surfing" black swans were caught catching some waves at a beach on Australia's Gold Coast, in a video posted on YouTube. "There're good biological reasons to think that animals have fun," said Marc Bekoff, a professor emeritus of ecology and evolutionary biology at the University of Colorado, Boulder. "Probably as few as five years ago, scientists wondered, do animals have fun or make friends — and I think that's just the silliest thing in the world," Bekoff told Live Science. The swans in the video aren't the only ones enjoying themselves at the shore.
Thu, 10 Jul 2014 15:01:47 -0400
By Irene Klotz CAPE CANAVERAL Fla. (Reuters) - A valiant effort to put a defunct NASA science satellite back to work came to a disappointing end this week after the 36-year-old spacecraft’s propulsion system failed, project organizers said. An ad hoc team of engineers and scientists won permission from NASA to try to take control of the International Sun-Earth Explorer-3, or ISEE-3. As ISEE-3 neared Earth’s orbit this spring, a volunteer team launched a crowd-funding campaign to raise money, eventually ending up with nearly $160,000. The group also petitioned NASA to let it try to redirect the probe into a stable orbit around Earth so it could resume science operations.
Thu, 10 Jul 2014 14:01:37 -0400

Why Some Chimps Are Smarter Than OthersChimpanzees don't just get their smarts by aping others — chimps, like humans, inherit a significant amount of their intelligence from their parents, new research reveals. Researchers measured how well 99 captive chimpanzees performed on a series of cognitive tests, finding that genes determined as much as 50 percent of the animals' performance. "Genes matter," said William Hopkins, a neuroscientist at Georgia State University in Atlanta and co-author of the study published today (July 10) in the journal Current Biology. "We have what we would call a smart chimp, and chimps we'd call not so smart," Hopkins told Live Science, and "we were able to explain a lot of that variability by who was related to each other."


Wed, 09 Jul 2014 18:45:55 -0400
By Barbara Liston ORLANDO Fla. (Reuters) - Oil that matches the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico has been found in the bodies of sickened fish, according to a team of Florida scientists who studied the oil's chemical composition. "We matched up the oil in the livers and flesh with Deepwater Horizon like a fingerprint," lead researcher Steven Murawski, a professor at the University of South Florida's College of Marine Science in Tampa, told Reuters. BP, whose oil rig caused the spill, rejected the research, stating in an emailed response that it was "not possible to accurately identify the source of oil based on chemical traces found in fish livers or tissue." BP's statement added, "vertebrates such as fish very quickly metabolize and eliminate oil compounds.
Wed, 09 Jul 2014 18:43:45 -0400

Science As Art: Soundscapes, Light Boxes and Microscopes (Op-Ed)These questions lie at the heart of the work of visual artist Patricia Olynyk. I had some interest in science, but I didn't really have access to labs or to teaching art and science until I got a full-time position at the University of Michigan in 1999.


Wed, 09 Jul 2014 18:37:27 -0400

The Three Policies That Can Counter Global Warming (Op-Ed)For example, one such policy is to convert heavy-duty trucks to run on compressed natural gas (CNG) rather than diesel fuel. Ramón Alvarez and his colleagues at the Environmental Defense Fund, Princeton University, Rochester Institute of Technology and Duke University studied this option and found that it is "not a viable mitigation strategy for climate change," as it would be nearly 300 years after the fuel switch before net climate benefits are achieved. Policies that are effective at reducing emissions generally come in three types: economic signals, performance standards and policies to support innovation. Economic signals are policies that change the price of goods or activities in order to influence the choices made by people and businesses. Economic signals counter a key failure of markets: they do not properly value "externalities" (the positive and negative effects of an activity on society).  These effects are not limited to climate change.


Wed, 09 Jul 2014 10:37:24 -0400
The baseline for "normal" weather used by everyone from farmers to governments to plan ahead needs to be updated more frequently to account for the big shifts caused by global warming, the U.N.'s World Meteorological Organization said on Wednesday. The WMO's Commission for Climatology believes rising temperatures and more heatwaves and heavy rains mean the existing baseline, based on the climate averages of 1961-90, is out of date as a guide, the WMO said in a statement. "For water resources, agriculture and energy, the old averages no longer reflect the current realities," Omar Baddour, head of the data management applications at the WMO, told Reuters.
Tue, 08 Jul 2014 22:44:14 -0400

Giant Ancient Sea Scorpions Had Bad Eyesight"These things were almost certainly still predators of some kind, but the imagined notion that they were swimming around terrorizing anything that looked edible is probably an exaggeration," said Derek Briggs, a paleontologist at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, and co-author of the new study, published today (July 8) in the journal Biology Letters. Pterygotids were a type of eurypterid, an extinct type of sea scorpion related to arachnids. Their closest living relatives are horseshoe crabs or modern sea scorpions, he said. Previously, these spooky sea monsters were thought to be fearsome predators, devouring armored fishes and giant cephalopods (related to modern squids and nautiluses).


Tue, 08 Jul 2014 07:57:37 -0400
More than 150 researchers signed an open letter to the commission in charge of Europe's Human Brain Project (HBP), a 10-year, $1.4 billion (1 billion euros) effort to simulate the human brain on a computer. "We wish to express the view that the HBP is not on course and that the European Commission must take a very careful look at both the science and the management of the HBP before it is renewed," the scientists wrote in the open letter. The Human Brain Project was launched in 2013 by the École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) in Switzerland, and is funded primarily by the European Union. The project is Europe's equivalent of the United States' BRAIN Initiative, a proposed $4.5 billion, 12-year brain-mapping effort that President Obama launched in April 2013.
Mon, 07 Jul 2014 12:31:11 -0400
BRUSSELS (AP) — Dozens of neuroscientists are protesting Europe's $1.6 billion attempt to recreate the functioning of the human brain on supercomputers, fearing it will waste vast amounts of money and harm neuroscience in general.
Sun, 06 Jul 2014 02:23:33 -0400
Among the many nutrition supplements trumpeted for potential health benefits, fish oil supplements have been among the most ballyhooed. Since then, long-term studies have revealed potential harms from taking fish oil unnecessarily. Fish oil supplements contain several vitamins and two significant omega-3 fatty acids, called eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These fatty acids are found in a number of fish, so it is often recommended to get proper doses by eating oily fish twice a week.
Thu, 03 Jul 2014 12:04:34 -0400
(Repeats deleting extraneous word) By Mitch Phillips RIO DE JANEIRO, July 3 (Reuters) - Penalty shootouts have been used at the World Cup since 1982 but while every one of the 24 to date has routinely been described as "dramatic" there is a deal more science than art when it comes to converting successfully from 12 yards. The first penalty shoot-out to decide a major international match came after the final of the 1976 European championship when the Czechoslovakia beat West Germany 5-3 with the famously dinked final effort by Antonin Panenka. Uli Stielike did miss during their win over France in the first-ever World Cup shootout in the 1982 semi-final but in their three since they have converted every shot and have won four out of four. Brazil's win over Chile last week took their record to 3-1, while Argentina also boast a 3-1 record.
Thu, 03 Jul 2014 12:04:03 -0400

Costa Rica's Michael Umana scores during a penalty shootout against Greece in their 2014 World Cup round of 16 game at the Pernambuco arenaBy Mitch Phillips RIO DE JANEIRO (Reuters) - Penalty shootouts have been used at the World Cup since 1982 but while every one of the 24 to date has routinely been described as "dramatic" there is a deal more science than art when it comes to converting successfully from 12 yards. The first penalty shoot-out to decide a major international match came after the final of the 1976 European championship when the Czechoslovakia beat West Germany 5-3 with the famously dinked final effort by Antonin Panenka. Uli Stielike did miss during their win over France in the first-ever World Cup shootout in the 1982 semi-final but in their three since they have converted every shot and have won four out of four. Brazil's win over Chile last week took their record to 3-1, while Argentina also boast a 3-1 record.


Thu, 03 Jul 2014 06:44:48 -0400

Boxes containing magic mushrooms sit on counter at coffee and smart shop in RotterdamScientists studying the effects of the psychedelic chemical in magic mushrooms have found the human brain displays a similar pattern of activity during dreams as it does during a mind-expanding drug trip. Psychedelic drugs such as LSD and magic mushrooms can profoundly alter the way we experience the world, but little is known about what physically happens in the brain. In a study published in the journal Human Brain Mapping, researchers examined the brain effects of psilocybin, the psychedelic ingredient in magic mushrooms, using data from brain scans of volunteers who had been injected with the drug. Psychedelic drugs do precisely this and so are powerful tools for exploring what happens in the brain when consciousness is profoundly altered," said Dr Enzo Tagliazucchi, who led the study at Germany's Goethe University.


Thu, 03 Jul 2014 02:57:19 -0400

In this photo taken on May 23, 2014, retired Marine Gunnery Sgt. Brian Meyer, center, gets laser treatment from Navy Cmdr. Peter Shumaker, right, at the Naval Medical Center in San Diego. Meyer lost his right leg above the knee, his right hand above the wrist, and three fingers on his left hand while disarming a bomb in Afghanistan in 2011. The Naval Health Research Center is launching a major, six-year study on wounded warriors to track their quality of life and better understand the road to recovery. (AP Photo/Gregory Bull)SAN DIEGO (AP) — The blood is not the most jarring part of the photograph taken shortly after the bomb blew off Marine Gunnery Sgt. Brian Meyer's leg and hand.


Wed, 02 Jul 2014 16:18:00 -0400

FILE - In this Jan. 28, 2014 file photo, researcher Haruko Obokata, the lead author of a widely heralded stem-cell research paper by the Japanese government-funded laboratory Riken Center for Development Biology, speaks about research results during a news conference in Kobe, western Japan. The scientists who reported in January that they'd found a startlingly simple way to make stem cells have withdrawn that claim, following accusations of falsified data. On Wednesday, July 2, 2014, the journal Nature released a statement from the scientists who acknowledged "extensive" errors and said they couldn't say "without a doubt" that their method works. (AP Photo/Kyodo News) JAPAN OUT, MANDATORY CREDIT: KYODO NEWSNEW YORK (AP) — U.S. and Japanese scientists who reported that they'd found a startlingly simple way to make stem cells withdrew that claim Wednesday, admitting to "extensive" errors in the research.


Wed, 02 Jul 2014 11:21:37 -0400

'Revolutionary' Physics: Do Sterile Neutrinos Lurk in the Universe?A completely new subatomic particle — one so reclusive and strange that it passes undetected through ordinary matter — could be lurking in the universe. If so, a detector set to turn on later this year could find the first convincing evidence for the particle, called a sterile neutrino. The new experiment, whose 30-ton detector was recently lowered into place at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois, will look for traces of this elusive particle transforming into another type of neutrino. Unlike the Higgs boson, the particle thought to explain why other particles have mass and which most physicists predicted should exist for decades, sterile neutrinos would be in the realm of completely unknown physics that only some physicists believe exist, said Bonnie Fleming, the experiment's spokeswoman and a physicist at Yale University.


Wed, 02 Jul 2014 11:07:13 -0400

FILE - In this Jan. 28, 2014 file photo, researcher Haruko Obokata, the lead author of a widely heralded stem-cell research paper by the Japanese government-funded laboratory Riken Center for Development Biology, speaks about research results during a news conference in Kobe, western Japan. The scientists who reported in January that they'd found a startlingly simple way to make stem cells have withdrawn that claim, following accusations of falsified data. On Wednesday, July 2, 2014, the journal Nature released a statement from the scientists who acknowledged "extensive" errors and said they couldn't say "without a doubt" that their method works. (AP Photo/Kyodo News) JAPAN OUT, MANDATORY CREDIT: KYODO NEWSNEW YORK (AP) — U.S. and Japanese scientists who reported that they'd found a startlingly simple way to make stem cells withdrew that claim Wednesday, admitting to "extensive" errors in the research.


Wed, 02 Jul 2014 09:58:49 -0400

This undated image made available by the journal Nature shows a mouse embryo formed with specially-treated cells from a newborn mouse that had been transformed into stem cells. Researchers in Boston and Japan say they created stem cells from various tissues of newborn mice. If the same technique works for humans, it may provide a new way to grow tissue for treating illnesses like diabetes and Parkinson's disease. The report was published online on Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014 in the journal Nature. (AP Photo/RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Haruko Obokata)NEW YORK (AP) — Scientists who reported in January that they'd found a startlingly simple way to make stem cells have withdrawn that claim, following accusations of falsified data.


Tue, 01 Jul 2014 20:55:12 -0400

Former Iowa State University researcher Dong-Pyou Han leaves the Federal Courthouse, Tuesday, July 1, 2014, in Des Moines, Iowa. Han was making his initial court appearance on charges that he falsified data to make a proposed AIDS vaccine appear promising and win millions of dollars in federal grant money. (AP Photo/Charlie Neibergall)DES MOINES, Iowa (AP) — A former Iowa State University scientist pleaded not guilty Tuesday to charges alleging that he falsified research for an AIDS vaccine to secure millions of dollars in federal funding.


Tue, 01 Jul 2014 07:57:58 -0400

Enormous Tornado-Blocking Walls: Could Wild Idea Really Work?"The first time somebody mentioned it to me, I thought they were actually joking," said Paul Markowski, a professor of meteorology at Penn State. The basic goal of the proposal, put forth in the International Journal of Modern Physics B by Rongjia Tao, a physicist at Temple University, is to thwart the "violent air mass clashes" that spawn punishing tornadoes. Tao envisions three east-west walls, one at the northern edge of Tornado Alley, maybe in North Dakota, another in the middle, perhaps in Oklahoma, and the last stretching across southern Texas and Louisiana. Tao said he got the idea while working as a professor at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, where he studied the differences in tornado risk between nearby Washington and Gallatin counties.


Tue, 01 Jul 2014 07:03:33 -0400
VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE, Calif. (AP) — The planned launch of a rocket carrying a NASA satellite designed to track global warming has been postponed.
Mon, 30 Jun 2014 14:13:44 -0400

This Jan. 22, 2014, artist concept rendering provided by NASA shows their Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)-2. The OCO-2, managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., will launch from Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., on a Delta II rocket on July 1, 2014. Five years after a NASA satellite to track carbon dioxide plunged into the ocean after liftoff, the space agency is launching a carbon copy _ this time on a different rocket. The $468 million mission is designed to study the main driver of climate change emitted from smokestacks and tailpipes. (AP Photo/NASA/JPL-Caltech)LOS ANGELES (AP) — Five years after a NASA satellite to track carbon dioxide plunged into the ocean after liftoff, the space agency is launching a carbon copy — this time on a different rocket.


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